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What is the file extension types and attributes | Cyberops

What is the file extension types and attributes

By Chandan Singh 0 Comment April 28, 2017

Nowadays, in everyday life firmly entrenched words such as the file, file extension, file archive and others, are not well understood the word, and we are confident they are using, but if they can guess what the file is on a subconscious level.

File – structured data is information defined as a man and the machine as a whole.

How did the file

To understand what a file is, you need to refer to the history of the term. For the first time, the word file in the world of information technology applied the American company RCA, advertising is one of the first storage devices in 1950. In those days, computers are programmed using punched cards, after the card settlements or thrown away, or sent to a card file or directory.

These card information deposited via holes and the space between them, thus representatives of the first computing, by passing through the cards themselves with the task, on the received electric discharge holes, and discharge is not held at the gaps. Lined holes and gaps on the cards looked like a chain because then they used the English word file, which can be represented as a chain – the chain of ones and zeros that make up the file.

This principle works with files underlies all of the modern programmings. So, seeing your picture in front of a computer screen or even your phone, you know it is all zeros and one that with the help of mathematical formulas are converted processor of any of the types of computers in the picture, and she, in turn, is a file.

Modern files, of course, does not look like a card with holes and dots, they are much more colorful, you see them on the monitor in the form of pictures.

That the file it represents

Now a little about the kinds of tethers. The files are different and have different functions. Some people run programs, while others have different commands or activate work in these programs, and more information is stored in them, however, for example, in games should be landscape. And now to our operating system are not to be confused, special notations have been invented for the files, which are called – extension files, and to determine their views.

If you look at the files on your screen, you can see that the name of the file consists of two parts: first, the very name of the file, there is a point behind them in turn, is a kind of a separator and then a letter designation.

For example: “What is fayl.doc”. As you can see the file name, we write Russian, but its expansion in this case «doc» is written in English. So the expansion and serve to confuse or which files can be opened and which are not, and most importantly, to the operating system, which also consists of the files could determine which team to which the file should be used. For example, for a file with a photo, it will never use the operation as a file with the text and vice versa.

Types of file extensions

Extensions come in different forms. Most often we are faced with the following files and extensions:

  • Video files can be avi, wmf, 3gp, mp4, mpg2.
  • Photos and drawings are defined by these extensions: jpg, bmp, gif, tiff, png.
  • Texts and documents: txt, doc, rtf, docx.
  • Files, which are recorded data for calculations in spreadsheets are an extension – xls, xlsx, xlsm, ods.
  • For music is characterized by extension: mp3, wma.
  • Program to run the file with the extension exe, cmd, bat, they are also referred to as the executive.
  • But if you each gave, for example, a set as an archive file, then the file will have a resolution rar, zip, tg.

Without a doubt, the article presents some of the most popular file extensions, but in fact, there are much more.

Let’s look at the past in more detail. Archive files created special archive programs that are able to maximize seal all one and zeros in the file so as not to be a clear space between them. This feature applies to all the files you want to compress. But the most important thing after the backup, instead of the heap of files you get one file archive solution. But inside this file, you will see all of your files, with all the trappings, but to use it you can, when you unpack the archive.

Files and their attributes

And now about the attributes. Attributes are a very important element of the file, thanks to him, the operating system knows what action to a file can be used. For example, if you are afraid that your document someone will make changes, you can assign the attribute – read-only. By the way, all operating systems the last two or three generations for all files that you download from the Internet, by default assigns the read-only attribute.

The next attribute – it is a hidden attribute, for example, you have a file that holds a terrible secret and you do not need to know about him that other users of your computer, then give it a hidden file attribute. He immediately disappears from the screen, but do not be afraid, he is not lost, simply become “invisible”, and it can be seen, if the window control menu, put a check in front of the inscription – “Show hidden files”.

As mentioned, the operating system also consists of a file, the file of which it is assigned as an attribute, it is called – “system.” And these are the only files on the computer with which you do not do anything, do not delete, do not change or move out of the folder where they are, will only be able to copy.

The operating system constantly uses the files, not that of them as pointers to commands sent for execution, others contain such commands, and others perform other actions, in fact it’s like your body, where the liver is not able to perform the function of the heart, and the heart does not replace the light. And then if you can remove one of the system files, the operating system may not be able to start and then you do not load your computer or will be available or whether some other function.

The archive attribute is assigned to the file, if the system does its backups on your team, schedule the creation of recovery points or when you create a disk image from which she later recovered.

Just do not confuse with the archive file, are two different things. That is, the backup file is exactly the same file that is used by you or by the system, but it is not amended, and stored it in a certain area of the hard disk, which reserves an operating system for their needs, for example, for archiving files, which assigned to them and the attribute “archive file”.

The right to access the file

The last important feature is the “File Permissions” for files. The fact is that the computer can not work a limited number of users and to ensure that they are not confused with their files and have access to your computer, create user accounts. And this, in turn, creates for each user a local account, and if a little bit easier, the “Desktop” and the area where they are stored files (My Documents, My Pictures, etc.).

All files that are created on the computer can change, only users under the account which they were created. For example, a user account “Ivanov” will only be able to modify files, the fact that he himself has created and run the programs that he found out from under his account. But “Petrov” they simply do not see, if there is to know where they are, but even finding nothing he can do with them if he does not allow it, the most important account, the user “Administrator”, which has access to all files on your computer. A user with these rights can assign access to the file to other users.

File and its size

And at the end of our answer to the question of what a file is, you need to take into account the size of the file. We all know that the world still has its weight, size, volume, and the same file. All these one and zeros inherent in the source code, have their measuring measure – bits, bytes, kilobytes, megabytes, gigabytes, terabytes, and so on.

And how they are defined, or rather, how to determine how much each file is in an amount more likely to say it is – weigh? So zeros and one make pairs, as we said, one electrical impulse is, zero – pulse no such pairs are called bits, and eight of these bits make up a byte, so sixteen zeros or of ones woven into a chain that It creates a file. See how much weight a particular file is very easy to do this, click the cursor on the “mouse” and at the bottom of the window, you will see the size of your file.

Or, right- mouse click on the file, then open the context menu in which to display “Properties” in the dialog box will indicate the size of the file, its attribute, date of creation, as well as who owns the file.

Well, strictly speaking, it is all you need to know about the file. What are a file and its characteristics are quite available are described in the article by now it will be possible to work more confidently with them without trying to open a movie file to read a book or listen to music revealing photos.

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