Basic terms and concepts in the Linux operating system
Every Linux, the user inevitably encounter a lot of new technical terms. Value is not always clear. Despite the fact that many of the terms discussed in detail in the relevant sections of the “ABC”, it is sometimes useful to have on hand (especially for the novice user) a kind of cheat sheet. Here are brief explanations of the most frequently used terms and concepts, and some are not considered. Besides, are not affected by the words, the meaning of which is identical to the received in the Windows environment.
Bash – Linux shell command that is used by default. Its name stands for Bourne Again Shell. It provides the user with rich possibilities for configuration.
Virtual filesystem – component system kernel, which provides uniform access to the file systems of different types.
Owner – The user who created the file or directory. Change owner can only he or the superuser (root).
Group – two or more members with equal privileges in the system. – add-on program that makes it easy to work with. It allows you to use the user-friendly interface instead of the manipulation of the command line.
Demons – special system processes run in the background without displaying any data to the terminal. They are commonly used for a variety of service functions.
Distribution is the Linux – this is the core of the system and a certain number of packages put together and ready to work. Distributions are the Microsoft, are placed on one or two floppies and full-scale, over multiple CD and provide the user with a full range of applications that are required in various fields of human activity.
Hard links – this alternative names to any file. After removal of the original file hard link to it is stored, as well as the actual data of the file. Hard links can only point to a file within the same file system, and that the link itself. That is, it is impossible to create a hard link to a file that is located, for example, on the removable media. One of the main purpose of hard links – to protect files from being accidentally deleted. Such links – about the same as the copy of Microsoft Windows.
The magazine – a special file created by the system, which contains a checklist of the steps, errors, etc…
Journaling file system – file systems created to facilitate fault tolerance. While in the normal file system, not all changes are written directly to the hard drive, and if forced to watch the whole thing fails verification and recovery program, journaling file systems use transaction technique. Its essence can be briefly explained as follows: The action cannot be performed until all the induced changes are not written to the hard disk and recorded. And in the case of failure due to such a protocol, the system will quickly be returned to its original state.
Loadable Module – optional component of the system kernel that is used most often to support any hardware. They perform the same role as the device drivers in Windows.
Downloader – a special program that is installed in the Master Boot Record (MBR) of the first section. If your computer has multiple operating systems allows the loader at startup to select and run any of them. Developers from different distributions generally offer users a classic boot loader (LILO, GRUB), and their own development. For example, for ASPLinux there ASPLoader loader.
Shell – a program used to direct user interaction. That it accepts all the commands specified by the user, either through the command line or through a graphical interface. The default shell is commonly used, Bash.
Command line – a line in a terminal window, where in the text mode, commands are entered. Using a command line system can perform any operation, manipulation of directories and files, launch programs, and so on. D.
Compiling the kernel – build the kernel from source. Most often, it must be followed during the installation of a new version of the kernel, or after connection of new downloadable modules that are responsible for the support of new equipment, new file systems, and so on. D.
The configuration file – in Linux does not have the registry in Windows, and all system settings and applications are stored in a special configuration file. They can be compared with the ini-files in Windows 3.1. Configuration files can be edited in any text editor.
Configuration Utility – special program with a graphical interface that makes it easier to work with the system configuration files.
The parent directory – directory located one level above the current one in the tree structure of the file system.
The RPM – a convenient and widely used in a variety of software distributions and format for installation, update, and delete files. Format RPM (Redhat Package Manager) was originally developed by RedHat, but was subsequently adopted by the Linux community, as a de facto standard.
RPM-packages – specially prepared files for processing program rpm.
The Samba – an application that allows a Linux computer to communicate with other machines that are running on Windows. Moreover, such a computer can be a client in a Windows network, and server.
Swap-section – a special partition on the hard disk used for paging. It can be created when installing the Linux operating system and later. The approximate value of the volume swap section is equal to twice the volume of available memory. But do not create too large swap-sections, for example, more than 1-2 GB. But we cannot completely abandon the creation of swap, relying only on the computer’s RAM.
Symbolic links – links to files, which can be located on a different medium, a different file system or even on a different computer. Unlike hard links, if you delete the original file the symbolic link becomes useless. Such links are roughly the same as shortcuts in Microsoft Windows.
Superuser – an administrator in UNIX-based systems, also called root. It has all the rights.
Tarball – an archive file created by tar utility.
Mount point – the parent directory used in the file system to access the disk partitions.
Device files – from the perspective of the operating system Linux is installed equipment presents files. Interaction with devices through kernel modules, and to interact with other parts of the system and software modules create the device files. All these files are stored in the directory/ dev.
Fdisk – text utility for viewing and editing the structure of your hard disk partitions. A little difficult to learn for new users.
Font server – a special program to display fonts on the screen.
The core of the system, or the kernel -. The main part of the operating system that serves to communicate between software and hardware, allocate resources and memory, process control, etc. The functions of the core can be greatly extended by installing additional modules. The development of new versions of the kernel is constantly conducted community of programmers around the world. The latest version of the kernel can always be downloaded from the website www.kernel.org. The new kernel can be downloaded in the form of RPM-packages or in the form of source code. In the latter case, it must then be compiled.